Federal Communications Commission
Reboot.FCC.gov

A Collection of Studies on the Future of Media

June 17th, 2010 by Christopher Clark - Special Assistant to the Future of Media project

Below is a list of recent, relevant research and studies conducted both by the FCC and by a variety of outside groups (a list that we are regularly supplementing).  To the extent that they contain recommendations, which are the most meritorious?  Which are the most troubling?   What other subject areas should be studied and/or additional data collected?  Are there other completed studies that should be added to the list and considered?  

 

 AJR Staff. (2009). “AJR’s 2009 Count of Statehouse Reporters,” American Journalism Review, Apr./May. Available at http://www.ajr.org/article.asp?id=4722

Albertson, Bethany, & Lawrence, Adria (2009, March). After the Credits Roll: The Long-Term Effects of Educational Television on Public Knowledge and Attitudes. American Politics Research, 37(2), 275-300. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1532673X08328600.

 

 Alliance for Better Campaigns, Benton Foundation, Center for Creative Voices in Media, Center for Digital Democracy, Common Cause, Media Access Project, et. al (2004, Apr. 7). Public Interest Obligations and the Digital Television Age (Proposed Guidelines). Available at http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6516886561.
 

American Library Association. (2009, Apr.). The State of America’s Libraries, A Report from the American Library Association. Available at http://www.ala.org/ala/newspresscenter/mediapresscenter/presskits/2009stateofamericaslibraries/State%20draft_04.10.09.pdf.
 
American Society of News Editors. (2009, Apr. 16). U.S. Newsroom Employment Declines. Available at http://asne.org/article_view/smid/370/articleid/12/reftab/101.aspx.
 
American University Center for Social Media. (2009, Sept.). Scan and Analysis of Best Practices in Digital Journalism In and Outside U.S. Public Broadcasting. Available at http://www.centerforsocialmedia.org/resources/publications/CPB_journalism_scan/.
 
Anderson, Brian C., & Thierer, Adam D. (2008, September). A Manifesto for Media Freedom. Manhattan Institute. Available at  http://www.manhattan-institute.org/manifesto_for_media_freedom/.
 
ARAnet. (2009, Sept. 24). Survey: Americans Increase Use of Online and Radio News Sources; Hispanics Increasingly Turning to Online News Sources. Available at http://aranetonline.com/Docs/MediaUsageCredibilitySurvey_092409.pdf.
 
Aufderheide, Pat, & Clark, Jessica (2009, Feb.). Public Media 2.0: Dynamic, Engaged Publics (A Future of Public Media Project). American University Center for Social Media. Available at http://www.centerforsocialmedia.org/resources/publications/public_media_2_0_dynamic_engaged_publics/.
 
Baumann, Michael G. (2006, Oct.). “Review of the Increases in Non-Entertainment Programming Provided in Markets with Newspaper Owned Television Stations”: An Update(submitted by Media General, Inc. to the FCC’s 2006 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules – MB Docket No. 06-121). Available at http://webapp01.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6518534505 (p. 145).
 
Berkowitz, Dan (2007, Oct.). Professional views, community news: Investigative reporting in small US dailies. Journalism, 8(5), 551-558. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1464884907081051.
 
Borrell, Gordon (2009, Aug. 6). The Rumors of Newspapers' Death (Borrell Associates Report). Available at http://www.borrellassociates.com/wordpress/2009/08/06/the-rumors-of-newspapers-death/.
 
Bystrom, Dianne G., & Dimitrova, Daniela V. (2007, Mar.). Rocking the Youth Vote:  How Television Covered Young Voters and Issues in a 2004 Target State. American Behavioral Scientist, 50(9), 1124-1136. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002764207299363.


 

Champlin, Dell, & Knoedler, Janet (2002). Operating in the Public Interest or in Pursuit of Private Profits? News in the Age of Media Consolidation. Journal of Economic Issues, 36(2). Available at http://diglib.lib.utk.edu/utj/jei/36/jei-36-2-24.pdf.
 
Chipty, Tasneem (2007, June 24). Station Ownership and Programming in Radio (Media Ownership Research Study 5). Available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DA-07-3470A6.pdf. (Study commissioned by FCC for FCC’s 2006 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules.)
 
Chute, Adrienne, & Kroe, P. Elaine (2007, Nov.). Public Libraries in the United States: Fiscal Year 2005, at 3, (U.S. Department of Education NCES 2008-301). Available at http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2008/2008301.pdf.
 
Consumers Federation of America, & Consumers Union (2004, Nov. 1). Market Failures of Commercial Mass Media to Meet Society’s Need for Localism and Diversity(submitted in response to FCC Notice of Inquiry, In the Matter of Broadcast Localism, MB Docket No. 04-233). Available at http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6516791930.
 
Consumers Federation of America, & Consumers Union (2004, Nov. 1). Television and Political Discourse: Usage Patterns, Social Processes and Public Support for Broadcaster Responsibilities to Promote Localism and Diversity(submitted in response to FCC Notice of Inquiry, In the Matter of Broadcast Localism, MB Docket No. 04-233). Available at http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6516791930.
 
Cooper, Mark (2006, Oct. 23). A Case Study of Why Local Reporting Matters: Photojournalism Framing of the Response to Hurricane Katrina in Local and National Newspapers (Study 14) (submitted by Consumers Union, Consumer Federation of America, and Free Press to the FCC’s 2006 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules – MB Docket No. 06-121). Available at http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6518535446 (p. 123).
 
Cooper, Mark (2006, Oct. 23). Local Media and the Failure of Big Media’s Conglomerate Model (Study 9) (submitted by Consumers Union, Consumer Federation of America, and Free Press to the FCC’s 2006 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules – MB Docket No. 06-121). Available at http://webapp01.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6518535446 (p. 153).
 
Cooper, Mark (2006, Oct. 23). Media Usage: Traditional Outlets Still Dominate Local News and Information (Study 7) (submitted by Consumers Union, Consumer Federation of America, and Free Press to the FCC’s 2006 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules – MB Docket No. 06-121). Available at http://webapp01.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6518535445 (p. 117).
 
Cooper, Mark (2006, Oct. 23). The Internet and Local News and Information (Study 8) (submitted by Consumers Union, Consumer Federation of America, and Free Press to the FCC’s 2006 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules – MB Docket No. 06-121). Available at http://webapp01.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6518535445 (p. 134).
 
Cooper, Mark, & Cooper, Steven (2006, Oct. 23). Concerns About Print Journalism and Cross-Ownership (Study 10) (submitted by Consumers Union, Consumer Federation of America, and Free Press to the FCC’s 2006 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules – MB Docket No. 06-121). Available at http://webapp01.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6518535446 (p. 184).
 
Cowan, Geoffrey, & Westphal, David (2010, January). Public Policy and Funding the News: Report (Center on Communication Leadership & Policy Research Series, USC Annenberg School for Communication & Journalism). Available at http://www.fundingthenews.org/pdf/public_policy_report.pdf.
 
CQ Researcher. (2009, March 17). Future of Journalism: Will Newspapers’ Decline Weaken Democracy?  Available at http://cqresearcherblog.blogspot.com/2009/03/future-of-journalism.html.
 
Crawford, Gregory S. (2007). Television Station Ownership Structure and the Quantity and Quality of TV Programming (Media Ownership Research Study 3). Available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DA-07-3470A4.pdf. (Study commissioned by FCC for FCC’s 2006 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules.)
 
Davis, Denise M. (2006, Mar. 10). Funding Issues in U.S. Public Libraries, Fiscal Years 2003-2006, at 1. Available at http://www.ala.org/ala/research/librarystats/public/fundingissuesinuspls.pdf.
 
Dimitrova, Daniela V., & Stromback, Jesper (2009, Jan.). Look Who’s Talking:  Use of sources in newspaper coverage in Sweden and the United States, Journalism Practice, 3(1), 75-91. Available at http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all?content=10.1080/17512780802560773.
 
Downie, Jr., Leonard, & Schudson, Michael (2009, Oct. 19). The Reconstruction of American Journalism, Columbia Journalism Review. Available at http://www.journalism.columbia.edu/cs/ContentServer/jrn/1212611716674/page/1212611716651/JRNSimplePage2.htm.
 
Editor & Publisher. (2004). Circulation of U.S. Community Weekly Newspapers by Circulation Groups, EditorandPublisher.com. Available at http://www.editorandpublisher.com/eandp/images/pdf/US%20Weekly%20Circ.%20by%20Circ.pdf.
 
Edwardson, Mickie (2007). Convergence, Issues, and Attitudes in the Fight Over Newspaper-Broadcast Cross-Ownership. Journalism History, 33(2), 79-90. Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_7647/is_200707/ai_n32236255/pg_8/.
 
Eskelsen, Grant, Ferree, W. Kenneth, & Marcus, Adam (2009). The Digital Economy Fact Book(10th ed.). Progress and Freedom Foundation. Available at http://www.pff.org/issues-pubs/books/factbook_10th_Ed.pdf.
 

Estabrook, Leigh, Rainie, Lee, & Evans Witt (2007, Dec. 30). Information Searches that Solve Problems: How People Use the Internet, Libraries, and Government Agencies When They Need Help, at 10, 22 (Pew Internet & American Life Project). Available at http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2007/Information-Searches-That-Solve-Problems.aspx.

Federal Communications Commission (1946, March 7). Public Service Responsibility of Broadcast Lincensees (historical Commission report, also known as the "Blue Book"). Available at http://reboot.fcc.gov/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=9f04f8f3-0ef9-485e-bbdb-544e29bc70a6&groupId=101236.

Fine, Lauren Rich (2009, May 4-5). Bad Public Relations or Is This a Real Crisis?: YES(paper presented at Duke Conference on Nonprofit Media). Available at http://sanford.duke.edu/nonprofitmedia/documents/dwcrichfinefinal.pdf.

 
 
Fox, Ariel (2009, Nov. 5). Copyright, Competition and Publishers’ Pursuit of Online Compensation. Public Policy & Funding the News: Working Paper (Center on Communication Leadership & Policy, USC Annenberg School for Communications & Journalism). Available at http://www.fundingthenews.org/pdf/CarnegieIntellectualProperty.pdf.
 
Fratrik, Mark (2006, Oct. 23). Economic Viability of Local Television Stations in Duopolies (submitted by the National Association of Broadcasters to the FCC’s 2006 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules – MB Docket No. 06-121). Available at http://webapp01.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6518532948 (p. 92).
 
Furchgott-Roth, Harold W. (2007, Nov.). Econometric Review (submitted by Media General, Inc. to the FCC’s 2010 and 2006 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules – MB Docket No. 09-182). Available at http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=7020349545.
 
Future of Exploration Network. (2006). Future of Media Report, 2006. Available at http://www.rossdawsonblog.com/Future_of_Media_Report2006.pdf.
 
Future of Exploration Network. (2007). Future of Media Report, 2007. Available at  http://www.rossdawsonblog.com/Future_of_Media_Report2007.pdf.
 
Future of Exploration Network. (2008). Future of Media Report, 2008. Available at  http://www.rossdawsonblog.com/Future_of_Media_Report2008.pdf.
 
Garrido, Miguel, & Schulhofer-Wohl, Sam (2009, Mar.). Do Newspapers Matter? Evidence from the Closure of The Cincinnati Post (Woodrow Wilson School of Public & International Affairs Discussion Papers in Economics, Discussion Paper #236). Available at http://wws-roxen.princeton.edu/wwseconpapers/papers/dp236.pdf.
 
Gavrilos, Dina (2006). U.S. News Magazine Coverage of Latinos: 2006 Report (submitted by the National Association of Hispanic Journalists to the FCC’s 2006 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules – MB Docket No. 06-121).Available at http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6518535893.
 
Goldfarb, Charles B. (2004, Oct. 21). “Localism”: Statutes and Rules Affecting Local Programming on Broadcast, Cable, and Satellite Television(Congressional Research Service Report, Order Code RL32641) (submitted by Sen. Frank Lautenberg in response to FCC Notice of Inquiry, In the Matter of Broadcast Localism, MB Docket No. 04-233). Available at http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6516886566.
 
Goodman, Ellen P., & Chen, Anne (2009, Nov. 6). Digital Public Media Networks to Advance Broadband and Enrich Connected Communities (submitted in response to FCC Notice of Inquiry, In the Matter of A National Broadband Plan for Our Future, MB Docket No. 09-51). Available at http://webapp01.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=7020347090.
 
Gunzerath, David (2006, Aug. 18). Local Television Market Revenue Statistics(submitted by the National Association of Broadcasters to the FCC’s 2006 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules – MB Docket No. 06-121).Available at http://webapp01.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6518532948 (p. 62).
 
Hale, Matthew, & Olsen, Tricia, & Franklin Foler, Erika (2009, January). A Matter of Language or Culture: Coverage of the 2004 U.S. Elections on Spanish- and English-Language Television. Mass Communication & Society, 12(1), 26-51.
 
Hamilton, James T. (2009, May 4-5). Subsidizing the Watchdog: What would it Cost to Support Investigative Journalism at a Large Metropolitan Daily Newspaper? (paper presented at the Duke Conference on Nonprofit Media). Available at http://sanford.duke.edu/nonprofitmedia/documents/dwchamiltonfinal.pdf.
 
Hargrove, Thomas, & Stempel III, Guido H. (2007). Use of Blogs as a Source of News Presents Little Threat to Mainline News MediaNewspaper Research Journal, 28(1), 99-102. Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3677/is_200701/ai_n21185405/.
 
Heins, Marjorie, & Cooper, Mark (2006, Oct. 23). Localism and Diversity (Study 4) (submitted by Consumers Union, Consumer Federation of America, and Free Press to the FCC’s 2006 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules – MB Docket No. 06-121). Available at http://webapp01.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6518535445 (p. 58).
 
Hobbs, Renee Hobbs (2007). Reading the Media in High School: Media Literacy in High School English, at 7. Teacher’s College Press. Excerpt available at http://www.reading.org/Publish.aspx?page=bk9217-1-Hobbs.pdf&mode=retrieve&D=10.1598/9780807747384.1&F=bk9217-1-Hobbs.pdf&key=778E6667-8036-44E8-83FB-2974F5AA4F89.
 
Jenkins, Henry (2006, July). “MySpace and the Participation Gap.” Confessions of an Aca-Fan: The Official Weblog of Henry Jenkins. Available at http://www.henryjenkins.org/2006/06/myspace_and_the_participation.html.
 
Jones, Sydney (2009, May 22). Online Classifieds. Pew Internet & American Life Project. Available at http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/7--Online-Classifieds.aspx.
 
Kaplan, Martin, et. al. (2003). Local News Coverage of the 2002 General Election(submitted in response to FCC Notice of Inquiry, In the Matter of Broadcast Localism, MB Docket No. 04-233). The Lear Center Local News Archive, USC Annenberg School and the University of Wisconsin. Available at http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6516483405.
 
Keith, Susan, Schwalbe, Carol B., & Silcock, William B. (2009). Visualizing Cross-Media Coverage: Picturing War Across Platforms During the U.S.-Led Invasion of Iraq. Atlantic Journal of Communication, 17(1), 1-18. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15456870802494941.
 
Kling, William H. (2009). In Service of a Democracy: Achieving Public Radio and Public Media’s Potential (paper presented at the Future of News Summit hosted by American Public Media and Minnesota Public Radio). Available at http://api.ning.com/files/dc1eYcCUaBJFAoifAH10XDWEruFMEve*RjQfUXMV828_/KlingReport.pdf.
 
Knight Commission on the Information Needs of Communities in a Democracy (2009, Oct. 2). Informing Communities: Sustaining Democracy in the Digital Age. Available at https://secure.nmmstream.net/anon.newmediamill/aspen/kcfinalenglishbookweb.pdf.
 
Kraeplin, Camille, & Criado, Carrie Anna (2006). Surveys Show TV/Newspapers Maintaining Partnerships. Newspaper Research Journal, 27(4), 52-65. Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3677/is_200610/ai_n21032452/.
 
Lastowka, F. Gregory, & Hunter, Dan (2006, April 26). Amateur-to-Amateur: The Rise of a New Creative Culture (Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 567). Available at http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6359.
 
Lee, Timothy B. (2006, Mar. 21). Circumventing Competition: The Perverse Consequences of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (Policy Analysis no. 564). Available at http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6025.
 
Lenert, Michael Edward, & Voigtman, Melissa (2007). The Internet as a Place for Community Action: Results from the Promise Tahoe Website Trial. American Communication Journal, 9(4), 8-8. Available at http://www.acjournal.org/holdings/vol9/winter/articles/promise.html.
 
Lenhart, Amanda, & Fox, Susannah (2006, July 19). Bloggers. Pew Internet & American Life Project. Available at http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2006/Bloggers.aspx.
 
Liedtke, Michael (2009, May 13). “AP Survey of News Execs: Staff Cuts Hurting Coverage,” EditorandPublisher.com. Available at http://www.editorandpublisher.com/eandp/news/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003972765.
 
Lloyd, Mark, & Napoli, Phil (2007). Local Media Diversity Matters: Measure Media Diversity According to Democratic Values, Not Market Values, Center for American Progress. Available at http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2007/01/pdf/media_diversity.pdf.
 
Lynn, Adam, Cooper, Mark, & Turner, S. Derek (2009). National Owners Dominate Local Cable News: Local Cable News Channels Do Not Significantly Contribute to Source or Viewpoint Diversity. Available at http://www.freepress.net.
 
Lynn, Adam, & Turner, Derek S. (2008, June). Independent Local News Sites in Chicago Do Not Significantly Contribute to Source or Viewpoint Diversity (Free Press Study). Available at https://www.policyarchive.org/bitstream/handle/10207/7997/local_chicago_websites_study.pdf?sequence=1.
 
Machefsky, Ira (2008, Aug. 1). Newspaper Advertising Revenue Trends, TheNumbersGuru.com (based on data from the Newspaper Association of America, available at http://www.naa.org/TrendsandNumbers.aspx). Available at http://thenumbersguru.blogspot.com/2008/07/newspapers-advertising-revenue-trends.html.
 
Martin, Jason A. (2008). Reversing the Erosion of Editorial Diversity: How the Newspaper Preservation Act Has Failed and What Can Be Done. Communication Law & Policy, 13(1), 63-96. Available at http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a790026460.
 
Messner, Marcus, & Watson Distaso, Marcia (2008). The Source Cycle. Journalism Studies, 9(3), 447-463. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616700801999287.
 
Miel, Persephone, & Farris, Robert (2008). News and Information as Digital Media Come of Age(The Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University). Available at http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/sites/cyber.law.harvard.edu/files/Overview_MR.pdf.
 
Mikkelsen, Kent W. (2007, Nov. 1). Effects of Newspaper-Television Cross-Ownership on Total Market News Minutes: Response to “Further Comments of Consumers Union, Consumer Federation of America, and Free Press” (submitted by Media General, Inc. to the FCC’s 2010 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules – MB Docket No. 09-182; originally submitted by the Newspaper Association of America to the 2006 Quadrennial Review). Available at http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=7020349545.
 
Milyo, Jeffrey (2007, Sept.). The Effects of Cross-Ownership on the Local Content and Political Slant of Local Television News(Media Ownership Research Study 6). Available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DA-07-3470A7.pdf. (Study commissioned by FCC for FCC’s 2006 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules.)
 
Napoli, Philip M. (2003, May). Television Station Ownership Characteristics and Local News and Public Affairs Programming: An Expanded Analysis of FCC Data (submitted in response to FCC Notice of Inquiry, In the Matter of Broadcast Localism, MB Docket No. 04-233). Info: The Journal of Policy, Regulation, and Strategy for Telecommunications, Information, and Media, 6(2), 112–21. Available at http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6516791428.
 
National Association of Hispanic Journalists. (2006). Network Brownout Report: The Portrayal of Latinos and Latino Issues on Network Television News in 2005(submitted by to the FCC’s 2006 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules – MB Docket No. 06-121). Available at http://webapp01.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6518535887.
 
National Center for Education Statistics. (2005). National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL): A First Look at the Literacy of America’s Adults in the 21st Century (NCES 2006-470), at 3. Available at http://nces.ed.gov/NAAL/PDF/2006470.PDF.
 
National Public Radio. (2006, June). Final Report to the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation re: Local News Initiative: Research and Planning Phase.
 
Nielsen Media Research, Inc. (2007). How People Get News and Information(Media Ownership Research Study 1). Available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DA-07-3470A2.pdf. (Study commissioned by FCC for FCC’s 2006 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules.)
 
Nilikantan, Rahul (2010). Postal Subsidies. Public Policy & Funding the News: Working Paper (Center on Communication Leadership & Policy, USC Annenberg School for Communications & Journalism). Available at http://www.fundingthenews.org/pdf/CarnegiePostalSubsidy.pdf.
 
Nilikantan, Rahul (2010). Tax Policy Affecting the News Business. Public Policy & Funding the News: Working Paper (Center on Communication Leadership & Policy, USC Annenberg School for Communications & Journalism). Available at http://www.fundingthenews.org/pdf/CarnegieTaxPolicy.pdf.
 
Overholser, Geneva (2006, Oct. 11). On Behalf of Journalism: A Manifesto for Change (A project of The Annenberg Foundation Trust at Sunnylands in partnership with The Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania). Available at http://annenbergpublicpolicycenter.org/Overholser/20061011_JournStudy.pdf.
 
Papper, Robert (2009). TV & Radio Staffing & News Profitability Survey 2009(RTNDA/Hofstra University Survey). Available at http://www.rtdna.org/media/pdfs/research/TV%20and%20Radio%20Staffing%20and%20Profitability.pdf
 
Papper, Robert (2009). Women in TV News at a Record High But Minorities Drop(RTNDA/Hofstra University Survey). Available at http://www.rtdna.org/media/pdfs/Women%20and%20Minorities%20Survey1.pdf.
 
Papper, Robert (2008, Oct.). The Real Story of TV News Staffing and Other Numbers for TV and Radio in 2008 (RTNDA/Hofstra University Survey). Available at http://www.rtnda.org/media/pdfs/research/Bob%20Papper%20-%20Profitability%20Survey%202.pdf.
 
Papper, Robert (2006). By the Numbers: News, Staffing and Profitability Survey (RTNDA/Ball State University Survey). The Communicator (Oct. 2006). Available at http://www.rtdna.org/media/pdfs/communicator/2006/oct/102006-22-34.pdf.
 
Papper, Robert (2003). 2003 Local Television News Study of News Directors and the American Public (Radio and Television News Directors Foundation Journalism Ethics Project) (submitted by RTNDA in response to FCC Notice of Inquiry, In the Matter of Broadcast Localism, MB Docket No. 04-233). Available at http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6516792133.
 
PBS Engage, & Knight Commission on the Information Needs of Communities in a Democracy. (2009, Apr.). What are your information needs? Comments available at http://www.pbs.org/engage/publicinput.
 
PBS Research. (2007). Roper Public Opinion Poll on PBS: 2007 vs. Past Years. Available at http://www.pbs.org/aboutpbs/pbsfoundation/news/pastroperpolls.pdf.
 
Pew Internet & American Life Project. (2010, Mar.). Understanding the Participatory News Consumer: How internet and cell phone users have turned news into a social experience. Available at http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Online-News.aspx?r=1.
 
Pew Project for Excellence in Journalism. (2010, Jan. 11). How News Happens: A Study of the News Ecosystem of One American City. Available at http://www.journalism.org/analysis_report/how_news_happens.
 
Pew Project for Excellence in Journalism. (2010, Mar. 15). The State of the News Media 2010, An Annual Report on American Journalism. Available at http://www.stateofthemedia.org/2010/.
 
Pew Project for Excellence in Journalism. (2009, Apr. 23). The State of the News Media 2009, An Annual Report on American Journalism. Available at http://www.stateofthemedia.org/2009/.
 
Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism. (2009, Mar. 26). Local TV News Reports a Drop in Revenue, Ratings. Available at http://www.journalism.org/commentary_backgrounder/local_tv_sees_drop_revenue_and_ratings.
 
Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. (2009, Sept. 13). Public Evaluations of the News Media: 1985-2009, Press Accuracy Rating Hits Two-Decade Low. Available at http://people-press.org/reports/pdf/543.pdf.
 
Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. (2008). Key News Audiences Now Blend Online & Traditional Sources: Audience Segments in a Changing News Environment (Pew Research Center Biennial News Consumption Survey). Available at http://people-press.org/reports/pdf/444.pdf.
 
Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. (2006). Online Papers Modestly Boost Newspaper Readership: Maturing Internet News Audience – Broader than Deep (Pew Research Center Biennial News Consumption Survey). Available at http://people-press.org/reports/pdf/282.pdf.
 
Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. (2004). How Journalists See Journalists in 2004: Views on Profits, Performance and Politics (submitted by Communications Workers of America to the FCC’s 2006 Quadrennial Review of Media Ownership Rules – MB Docket No. 06-121). Available at http://webapp01.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=6518536299.
 
Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. (2004). News Audiences Increasingly Politicized: Online News Audience Larger, More Diverse (Pew Research Center Biennial News Consumption Survey). Available at http://people-press.org/reports/pdf/215.pdf.
 
Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. (2002). Public’s News Habits Little Changed by Sept. 11: Americans Lack Background to Follow International News (Pew Research Center Biennial News Consumption Survey). Available at http://people-press.org/reports/pdf/156.pdf.
 
Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. (2000). Internet Sapping Broadcast News Audience: Investors Now Go Online for Quotes, Advice(Pew Research Center Biennial News Consumption Survey). Available at http://people-press.org/reports/pdf/36.pdf.
 
Pincus, Walter (2009). Newspaper Narcissism. Columbia Journalism Review (May/June 2009). Available at http://www.cjr.org/essay/newspaper_narcissism_1.php?page=all.
 
Powers, Shawn (2010). Government Support for Information Infrastructure: An Overview. Public Policy & Funding the News: Working Paper (Center on Communication Leadership & Policy, USC Annenberg School for Communications & Journalism). Available at http://www.fundingthenews.org/pdf/CarnegieBroadBand.pdf.
 
Powers, Shawn (2010). U.S. International Broadcasting: An Untapped Resource for Ethnic and Domestic News Organizations. Public Policy & Funding the News: Working Paper (Center on Communication Leadership & Policy, USC Annenberg School for Communications & Journalism). Available at http://www.fundingthenews.org/pdf/CarnegieUSInternationalBroadcasting.pdf.
 
Powers, Shawn (2010). Public Service Broadcasting: An Overview. Public Policy & Funding the News: Working Paper (Center on Communication Leadership & Policy, USC Annenberg School for Communications & Journalism). Available at http://www.fundingthenews.org/pdf/CarnegiePublicServiceBroadcasting.pdf.
 
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